VOL. IV, 1987
Lead me from Untruth to Truth
Lead me from Darkness to Light
Lead me from Death to Immortality
Adyaya I Brahmana 3 Mantra 28
(This service is only for private circulation. Part I of the journal lists the Current literature in
Homeopathy drawn from the well-known homeopathic journals published world-over - India, England,
Germany, France, Belgium, Brazil, USA, etc., discipline-wise, with brief abstracts/extracts. Readers may
refer to the original articles for detailed study. The full names and addresses of the journals covered by
this compilation are given at the end.
Compilation, translation, publication by Dr.K.S.Srinivasan, 1253, 66th Street, Korattur, Chennai - 600
080, India.)
Volume IV
© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
QHD, VOL.IV,NO.1 MARCH 1987 .................................................................................................................. 3
MIASMS REVISITED - ANTHONY CAMBELL, MRCP, FFHOM ................................................................. 4
IMAGES - J.GNAIGER ................................................................................................................................ 15
THE MIASMS THEORY OF ORTEGA - J. GNAIGER ............................................................................... 19
CASE - Z.J.BRONFMAN .............................................................................................................................. 26
QHD, VOL.IV, NO.2 MARCH 1987 ............................................................................................................... 30
POTENCY - R.A.F.JACK .......................................................................................................................... 31
BEHAVIORAL PROBLEM - WILLIAM SHEVIN, M.D., D.HT ................................................................... 37
TAKING A HISTORY - H MORROW BROWN MD, FRCP.................................................................... 43
HOMOEOPATHY IN ALLERGIC DISEASES - BY M.WIESENAUER ...................................................... 50
ARSENICUM ALBUM IN LICHEN RUBER PLANUS - BY DR.H.V.MULLER ....................................... 54
AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANGINA PECTORIS - BY DR.H.V.MULLER .......................................... 55
ROUTINE TREATMENT OF SCARLATINA? - BY DR.G.BEHNISCH ..................................................... 61
QHD, VOL. IV, NO.3, SEPTEMBER 1987 .................................................................................................... 64
SCORPION: REPORT OF A RECENT PROVING - GEORGE GUESS, M.D. ............................................ 65
A PROVING OF GLONINE - JULIAN WINSTON ....................................................................................... 74
UNGER ........................................................................................................................................................ 78
A PROVING OF BERBERIS VULGARIS D3 AND D30 - BY G.BAYR. ................................................... 80
BOOK SHELF ........................................................................................................................................... 90
QHD, VOL.IV, NO.4, DECEMBER 1987 ...................................................................................................... 94
LACHESIS - L.R. TWENTYMAN, M.B., B.CH., F.F.HOM. ................................................................... 95
THREE LACHESIS CASES A. HENNESSY, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., L.R.F.P.S., M.F.HOM .................. 105
PSYCHOGENIC STIFF-NECK - BY M. STUBLER .................................................................................. 108
FEED - BACK .......................................................................................................................................... 113
BOOK SHELF ......................................................................................................................................... 115
© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
1 QHD, Vol.IV,No.1 March 1987
Dear Doctor,
What better theme could we choose to commemorate Hahnemann's birthday in April than study
of his monumental work on the theory of Chronic Miasms? We have, therefore dedicated, this number to
the 'Chronic Miasms' of Hahnemann.
Much has been said in the past and being said to-day either doubting his theory or confirming it.
All these are part of the history of Homoeopathy. We are concerned with examining the theory with
reference to its practicability in the clinic. Except the Latin American School and in Germany not much
study of the chronic miasms seems to have been done and practiced either in Britain or America or France
and we have not been able to find any in the journals from those parts, recently; and not a single article, to
the best of our Knowledge, in any of the Indian journals within the past 5 years. This is rather surprising.
To come to the contents of this number Anthony Campbell seems to doubt the practicability of
the miasmatic theory, and goes to the extent of even stating that "the theory has been actively harmful".
Contrast this with the famous Dr.John Paterson's article "PSORA AND SYCOSIS IN RELATION TO
MIASMS IN CONTACT THERMOGRAPHY given in this number; these confirm the theory of chronic
miasms and its practicability.
The Latin American School of which Dr.P.S.Ortega has been a great leader has been making very
detailed study and the Vienna school of Dr.Mathias Dorcsi is also associated. Dr.Ortega's theories and
practicability have been clearly brought out in the two articles of Dr.J.Gnaiger who spent a few years in
Ortega’s school and clinic.
From Venezuela Dr. Grammcko; a student of Dr.T.P.Paschero has commented on the chronic
miasms in terms of Eric Berne's Transactional Analysis and lastly Argentinian Dr.Brofmann on the value
of Psoric symptoms for the prescription and follow-up, citing actual case. There is much more on the
chronic miasms but they will come later.
Incidentally it may be seen that great value has been given to our Dr.Ghatak's comments on the
chronic miasms; we however, seem to have forgotten him. Dr.T.P.Paschero a great teacher of
'Constitutional Medicine' expired in August 86 and in his memory we have given the article of
May the lights of these guide us.
March 1987.
Yours sincerely,
1253, 66
Madras 600 080
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© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
Generations of homoeopaths since Hahnemann have discussed the miasm theory from
every conceivable angle. Today, it seems, Kentian ideas are becoming more widely accepted
among homoeopaths in many countries, and this has led to an increased emphasis on the
importance of the miasm theory, which is often represented as being essential to homoeopathy.
I propose first, to examine what Hahnemann actually taught about miasms, as opposed to
what he is commonly supposed to have taught, which is by no means the same thing. Next, I
shall briefly review some of the ways in which later homoeopaths interpreted the theory. Finally,
I shall consider the present meaning and value of these ideas.
Hahnemann's formulation of the miasm theory
The outlines of the miasm theory are well known to all homoeopaths. In essence, the
theory states that all chronic diseases not attributable to faulty diet or environment or to
allopathic treatment, is due to one of three "miasms": sycosis, syphilis, and psora. Of these, much
the most importance is psora, which Hahnemann claims is responsible for seven-eighths of all
miasmatic chronic disease.
Hahnemann did not invent the term miasm, which was already in use in orthodox medicine in his
day, but he gave it a new meaning and importance. The word derives from the Greek and means
"taint" or "contamination". Hahnemann supposed that chronic disease occurred by the
introduction into the organism of one of the contaminating agents—miasms—through the skin.
The initial sign of this is a skin lesion of some kind. If the contaminating agent is then "driven
inwards" by misguided allopathic treatment it will become established throughout the organism
and thereby rendered ineradicable.
The clue to an understanding of Hahnemann's idea, therefore, is to realize that he
believed skin disorders to be merely the outward, visible manifestation of a systemic disorder.
He was by no means alone in this view, which he shared with a number of his orthodox
contemporaries, but he emphasized its importance much more than anyone else had done
Each of the three miasms has its own characteristic skin lesion: for sycosis it is fig warts,
for syphilis the chancre, and for psora the itch-vesicle (scabies). Notice, however, that the range
of skin disorders that Hahnemann regards as primary lesions of the miasms is a good deal wider
than the modern labels imply. For example, any warty growth anywhere on the skin is sycotic,
and almost any kind of skin eruption is Psoric. To identify psora with scabies pure and simple is
thus a considerable over-simplification.
Hahnemann's concept of the say in which the chronic miasms act can best be understood
by considering syphilis. Hahnemann held (rightly, from our point of view) that in syphilis the
disease is not confined to the so-called primary lesion—the chancre—but is systemic from the
© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
outset. Treatment of the chancre alone is therefore ineffective (Hahnemann would say, positively
harmful), and the disease, if left to itself, will produce all kinds of subsequent manifestations.
Sycosis and psora are exactly analogous to syphilis. In each, an apparently trivial skin
lesion is merely the outward sign of a deep-seated disorder that has already become established.
The course of events is therefore as follows.First, the contamination takes place; it becomes
generalized throughout the organism (probably travelling via the nerves); third, it gives rise to a
skin eruption.
The most important miasm, psora, is much more contagious than syphilis, and can be
communicated—especially to children—simply by touching the skin. Almost everyone is
susceptible to contamination with the psoric miasm, whereas sycosis and syphilis are more
The symptoms of latent psora are almost infinitely varied and are quite impossible to
summarize; they correspond to almost every mental and physical disease imaginable.
Hahnemann gives a confessedly incomplete list.
In summary, Hahnemann's miasm theory depends on the idea of contamination through
the skin by one of three agents. To the modern reader the temptation to equate miasm with
"infective agent" is almost irresistible. We must be clear, however, that Hahnemann himself did
not make this identification; on the contrary, he held that the actual nature of the miasms is
forever unknowable.
Later interpretations
Succeeding generations of homoeopaths have made many attempts to interpret the miasm
idea in the light of medical ideas of the day. In the early part of this century, for example,
orthodox medicine was much preoccupied with the notion that chronic sepsis (in teeth, appendix,
and so on) was an important cause of disease, and consequently we find homoeopaths attempting
to equate psora with sepsis. More recently, ideas of allergy and of autoimmunity have been
The Kentians, however, with their scorn for pathology, adopted a different view, which
derived from the teaching of Constantine Hering. This is the notion that the miasms are
hereditary (constitutional). Hering and his followers recognized a number of other miasms in
addition to Hahnemann's (for example, tuberculosis), and developed appropriate nosodes to treat
Today, Kentian and other homoeopaths often claim that Hahnemann made a brilliant
anticipation of the modern orthodox teaching that there exist heritable tendencies to various
diseases (for example, the well-known association between blood groups and certain diseases).
As we have seen, however, there is no justification for this in Hahnemann's own writings, which
make it quite clear that the miasms are acquired and not hereditary. (Hahnemann does not even
appear to have recognized the existence of congenital syphilis.)
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It is an interesting question why it should be so widely believed today among homoeopaths that
the miasms are hereditary. What seems to have happened is that Hahnemann's early followers,
especially in America, introduced a meta-physical element into the miasm theory to explain why
human beings should be liable to contamination in the first place.
The significance of the miasm theory today
The first thing to say about the miasm theory from a modern standpoint is that it is
essentially pathological. As we have seen, it is very easy to equate the miasms with infective
agents, and indeed it is almost impossible today not to make this identification.
Now, Hahnemann, as we know, rejected all theorizing about disease processes, and
taught that disease is nothing more than the sum of its symptoms: no symptom, no disease.
Clearly this is quite inconsistent with the miasm theory, which depends on the idea that the
miasms can persist for long periods without giving rise to overt symptoms. However,
inconsistency never troubled Hahnemann, and his writings contain many glaring examples of it.
At one stage, he did in fact anticipate the modern, microbial, theory of disease, at least in the
case of cholera. Thus he writes of the (acute) miasm responsible for cholera as M probably
consisting of a murderous organism, undetected by our senses, which attaches itself to a man's
skin, hair, etc., or to his clothing and is thus transferred invisibly from man to man." He does not
seem to have made the same suggestion in respect of the chronic miasms, but for us today the
temptation to do it for him is overwhelming. But where does this leave the miasm theory of
chronic disease?
If we equate miasm with infective agent, the theory states that virtually all chronic
disease is due to infection. This seems improbable. We know that many forms of chronic disease
are, in fact, due to infection, but many other things do not appear to be, at least in the light of our
present understanding. On this interpretation, therefore, the miasm theory is a gross over-
An alternative way of expressing the miasm theory is to say that all internal disease has a
cutaneous manifestation and vice versa. Again, however, this is a considerable over-statement.
Certainly some diseases may have cutaneous manifestations (cancer, for example), but the
association is by no means invariable or even very frequent.
No doubt many supporters of the miasm theory would reject both these interpretations. If
we do so, however, we are left with some very vague general statements to the effect that chronic
diseases fail to get better because there is some underlying factor which prevents them from
doing so. This is true but trite. It amounts, in fact, to little more than a tautology: chronic diseases
are chronic because they fail to get better. The miasm theory is not only platitudinous; it is
comprehensive to the point where it fails to explain anything at all. Hahnemann lists literally
hundreds of symptom complexes as due to psora. So vast and all-embracing is the list that it is
almost impossible to think of any disease that is not attribute to psora. But a theory that excludes
virtually nothing has almost no explanatory value.
At least if the theory had useful practical implications that would be something. In fact, however,
the choice among the various "antipsoric" remedies still has to be made in the usual way, on the
© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
similimum principle, so we are not much enlightened. Indeed, it could be argued that the theory
has been actively harmful, in that it has concentrated the minds of homoeopaths on the
"antipsorics" to the relative exclusion of many other remedies that might be indicated. Certainly
if one reads some of the homoeopathic literature of the nineteenth century, written by
homoeopaths who were not over-awed by the miasm idea, one finds much wider range of
remedies being used in chronic disease than is commonly the case today.
[From the BRITISH HOMOEOPATHIC JOURNAL, VOL 72, NO.1, January 1983 abridged
slightly by Dr.K.S.Srinivasan, Madras, for private communication only]
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© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
and Dr.Jutta Rost
Hahnemann's miasms, the three categories of chronic disease postulated by him and
confirmed by Ortega, are still not accepted or perhaps not understood by many homoeopathic
physicians today. They doubt that these three miasms, psora, sycosis and syphilis, really exist
and believe Hahnemann's thinking on the subject to be completely out of date, deeming it best to
ignore it.
The terms used to describe the three categories do of course reflect the state of
knowledge in Hahnemann's day. Nothing has changed, however, when it comes to his brilliant
powers of observation in relation to these chronic states. They represent the three ways in which
patients may react, something which became instantly obvious when we analyzed the data
obtained in contact thermography, a method used to monitor and record a patient's capacity for
heat regulation.
One of the symptoms Mezger refers to in many of his drug pictures—usually left to the
last and unfortunately often disregarded-is 'heat regulation', it is a symptom patients do not often
refer to spontaneously.
Heat or warmth is not merely a subjective sensation, for it can be objectively determined.
It is the essential product of intermediary metabolism in any organism, and therefore reflects the
quality of the life processes.
This is no doubt the reason why pathological changes in heat regulation tend to be in
evidence years before any form of functional disorder and hence also subjective symptoms make
their appearance. Subjective symptoms in their turn make their appearance a long time before
organic changes and hence clinical evidence can be registered.
Heat regulation therefore provides very early and extremely valuable data on the total
reactivity of the patient. Recorded in a thermogram it provides indications of both local and
general pathological processes.
The method generally referred to as thermography was introduced more than thirty years
ago by Dr Ernst Schwamm who used an instrument called a bolometer to measure the heat
radiated by the body i.e. infrared radiation, at a distance of a few centimeters.
In clinical medicine somewhat different methods of thermography have been developed.
Electronic thermo vision and later the use of liquid crystals (plate thermography) produce colour
zones to indicate heat distribution in the skin, different colours representing different levels of
The above three methods are not adequate to meet our aims, but the most recent
development in the field does meet requirements. This is a direct contact method determining
skin temperatures with highly sensitive thermometers, and the method is therefore known as
contact thermography.
© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
In general terms, thermography determines and records body temperature. A single
determination would merely relate to a particular moment, and we would fail to utilize the major
diagnostic potential of getting information on the reactive capacity of the system, an assessment
of reactive potential. Determinations are therefore made twice, before and after a specific stress
stimulus consisting in exposure of the body at room temperature. This will cause characteristic
changes in skin temperature. The difference between initial and post-stress readings reflects the
patient's regulatory capacity. It is completely reproducible.
The method consists in first of all recording a standard thermogram by determining skin
temperature in sixty specific sites. Indications of acute or chronic organic processes may be
obtained by relating segmental skin areas to internal organs via the viscero-cutaneous reflex ares.
An integral recorder plots the initial temperatures in black. The patient is then asked to undress
and stay like that for ten minutes at a room temperature of approximately 22°C. This provides
adequate stimulus to provoke a skin temperature reaction. Temperatures are then once again
recorded in the same sites, with the results plotted in red next to the initial readings.
Assessment is based on the following parameters: absolute level of temperature readings, lateral
correspondence, and most important of all the regulatory range: i.e. the difference between initial and second
No one would of course be expected to show normal values in absolutely' every region, for there is no
such thing as a person with one hundred per cent normal healthy functions. The criteria for a
normothermogram are however known from physiology. The surface of the human body has a characteristic
heat pattern, and there is a temperature gradient from within outwards and above downwards. Laterally
corresponding sites should given equal readings. Regulatory changes after cooling should be no less than 0.5°C
nor more than 1.0°C in the periphery.
Only a small percentage of patients show the characteristic normal pattern of regulation we should like
to see. Individual variations when the overall picture is normal suggest an acute condition which has not yet
caused profound changes. In/such acute cases one gets excessively high readings in individual sites with a poor
or paradoxical regulatory response after cooling. The normality of other readings in the area indicates that the
prognosis is good and that treatment will be straightforward because the patient still functions fully at the level
of autonomic regulation. These are cases where homoeopathic physicians see rapid progress using 'well-
established indications' and the 'short route to drug diagnosis'. They are the cases where we find ourselves
amazed how rapidly homoeopathic treatment takes effect, with the patient responding well.
It may occur to the reader that acute conditions should be diagnosable without the aid of thermography. This is
of course true for the fully developed stage; a contact thermogram will however reveal the process in its nascent
state, long before acute organic symptoms appear. It is possible with this method to find the weak points.
Organotropic homoeopathic treatment given at this early stage can stop the process short and prevent the
disease from evolving.
If homoeopathic physicians could join forces and do research in this area, a completely new
indication for homoeopathy could emerge: prophylactic therapy, a genuine safeguard against disease, which is
sorely lacking in the whole of medicine.
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The thermogram also provides information in acute cases as to whether this is a genuinely acute
process in a terrain or soil that is otherwise untainted, or whether one might not be dealing with an exacerbation
of a deep-seated chronic condition, the tip of the iceberg, as it were. Compared to the good-quality regulatory
capacity of an untainted terrain, the thermogram of a chronic patient shows a completely different picture, and
this is something we have been giving much thought to over a considerable period of time.
From the beginning of our work with thermography, it struck us that there were three highly
characteristic response patterns shown by chronic patients, three extremes of pathological reaction. The first two
have already been described by Pichinger. They consist in 'frozen' or hyporegulation, when there is little or no
regulatory response, and excessive or hyperregulation. These were the only two types of response Pichinger had
been able to find with his method based on the examination of venous blood.
Both types of regulation may also be found in contact thermograms. The regulatory range may be
limited to a decrease in skin temperature of less than 0.5°C, or it may be excessive, with skin temperature
decreases of more than 1.0°C. With these two types, practically all readings will show the one trend or the other,
still under general, though pathological, autonomic control.
Many cases however showed a third type of regulatory pattern where the 60 readings in the
thermogram revealed no general trend and it was impossible to see a uniform response. Excessively high and
excessively low temperature readings occurred within a few centimeters of each other in the abdominal skin, i.e.
hypo and hyper regulation occurred side by side with total lack of co-ordination. The picture which presented
itself was literally 'all over the place and it was practically impossible to evaluate it and arrive at a proper
diagnosis. What had happened in these cases? What had caused this obviously pathological
chaos of autonomic regulation?
Hahnemann’s and Ortega’s doctrine of miasms finally offered an explanation that
helped us to understand the chronic conditions presented by our patients.
Thermal hypo regulation, 'frozen' regulation, seemed to correspond to poor autonomic function, indicating a
deficit, a reduction, inadequacy. This surely represented the psoric terrdain.
Thermal hyperregulation in the other hand would reflect a general autonomic hyperreaction,
exaggeration, excess. This, we felt, must correspond to the sycotic terrain.
The chaotic process where there is no evidence of co-ordination would accordingly correspond to the
terrain characterized by destruction, lack of cohesionthe syphilitic miasm.
One would expect regulatory trends to be consistent for all parts of the organism. It is difficult to
imagine that heat regulation is subject to different laws from those pertaining to all other organic functions. It is
fascinating to think that contact thermography may provide us with a method to Confirm, prove and objectively
demonstrate Hahnemann's theory of the three miasms (Table 1). TABLE 1 Types of reaction shown by
diseased organisms.
© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
lack of moderation
(desperate defence reaction)
Hahnemann used the term 'miasm1 to define three types of pathological reaction shown by patients
who did not respond to his medicinal stimuli in the manner expected. The Greek word miasma means
'pollution'. In Hahnemann's day, physicians used the term to describe polluted vapors rising from the ground
which were thought to be responsible for epidemic diseases. Hahnemann (deliberately?) applied the term to
internal rather than external pollution of his patients, considering these polluted state to be the cause of changes
in reactive potential. Did he have an early, almost prophetic, intuition of the basic regulatory system explored
and described by Pichinger? Did he already suspect the possibility of the mesenchyme being filled up,
polluted, with waste products, a concept familiar to us today? Hahnemann found exactly these three types of
potential reaction, no more and no less, and these correspond entirely to the three so clearly demonstrated by
There was however a proviso. The connexions which appeared to exist had to remain hypothetical
until the syndromes described by Hahnemann could be clearly shown to correspond to the different types of
We proceeded to look for the most extreme thermograms among the many we had on filethose
showing definite blocks, those showing marked hyper reaction, and the most disparate. It must be clearly
stated that the majority of thermograms lie between these extremes, just as one only rarely finds purely psoric or
sycotic patients in practice. (Ortega actually attempted to express the percentage proportions of different
miasmatic taints in individual patients).
We found 38 hypo reactive, 34 hyper reactive and 39 chaotic thermograms on which to base our
evaluation. These were not large figures, but we were sure that some indications could be obtained.
The data on which our analysis was based derived from the type of record we have been keeping for
years: history; patients spontaneous report, specific questions to round out the medical and dental record. These
were case notes taken at earlier dates when miasmatic aspects were not even considered. This lack of bias on the
part of both patient and doctor may be regarded a positive factor, as it excludes any suspicion of preconceived
We extracted all relevant data relating to diagnosis and symptomatology from those records and
combined them in a few large rubrics.
The outcome of this somewhat crude method was the following:
At first sight it struck us that the type of reaction shown in the thermogram of a chronic patient does not
necessarily relate to the diagnosis. This makes it difficult for us to present the concept of thermograms to
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orthodox clinicians. Homoeopathic physicians on the other hand find confirmation thatfirst having made a
proper clinical diagnosis, of coursehomoeopathic treatment must be based on the individual symptom
picture if the patient's regulatory capacity is to be restored to order and healthy function.
Let us start by considering Group II, the group of patients whose initial thermal readings tend to be on
the cold side and who then show excessive, i.e. sycotic, reaction. This group has the greatest number of
significant figures. No other group has so many patients with joint and spinal symptoms, with inflammatory as
well as degenerative joint disease, rheumatism as well as gout. The group also has a high incidence of patients
with a history of liver and gall bladder disease or of kidney and bladder conditions, renal colic and surgery in
this area. We had hardly dared hope for such close agreement between thermal records and the typical
syndromes of sycotic patients. Doresi's use of the term 'lithaemia' defines the group very well. By the way,
almost all patients showing hyper regulation admit to a rather high intake of animal protein.
Another group found to come under these headings are patients with a history of powerful drug
therapy. Interestingly enough this relates not only to allopathic drugs, but also to intensive natural
therapies, often and wrongly combining a number of agents, compound drugs given in too great a number
and for much too long.
Group I, the group of patients showing hypo regulation, the psorics, also included many who had a
history of previous treatments of the above kind. It appears, therefore, that this type of reaction is also likely to
occur after the wrong kind of treatment, probably taking the form of suppression, as Hahnemann did actually
There was also a relatively high incidence of diffuse, nonspecific symptoms in the hypo regulative
group, with no demonstrable clinical evidence, symptoms interpreted as 'vegetative dystonia'. By the way, this
much maligned, nonspecific term suddenly looks quite different in the light of miasm theory, for these patients
really have a dystopia, subnormal function or hypo regulation of the autonomic system.
Twice as many of these particular patients were however found in the group showing chaotic
regulation. A homoeopathic physician will need to establish the difference on the basis of
symptoms specific to the patient and know how to adapt treatment to the particular miasm. The
difference is immediately apparent in the thermogram. Dorcsi's concept of 'destruction' is tailor-
made for this third group, and the temperature recordings provide a graphic illustration.
The most remarkable finding relating to Group III with its chaotic, syphilinic reaction
patterns was the large number of manifest precancerous conditions: myomas, mastopathies,
polyps, cysts, adenomas. To date, homoeopaths taking the miasmatic view have generally
considered such changes to come under the heading of 'excess, proliferation, hypertrophy' and
therefore sycosis. This opinion will have to be revised, for thermography shows that on too often
they nave a background of autonomic co-ordination breaking down.
The number of actual malignancies is surprisingly almost the same in all three groups. It
appears that every miasm is capable on its own of producing a carcinoma, leukaemia or systemic
malignant disease.
Two other interesting rubrics finally merit special attention in so far as they relate to
matters of principle. In the group with chaotic regulation, a family history of carcinoma is much
© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
more common than in the other two groups. On the other hand the personal history shows
relatively little evidence of serious illness. This raises the question as to whether and to what
extent miasmatic taints are congenital. Are they something people have for life, something
which cannot be changed? It appeared that the group with chaotic regulation points to some
extent in that direction. Hahnemann's and above all also Ortega's further thoughts on the basis
mentality of an individual and the way this relates to one miasm or another certainly suggest that
the roots are genetic.
No doubt we have to accept that every human being is born with miasmatic taints in
different proportions and that these influence the constitution and diathesis throughout life. Yet if
these were irreversible, any attempt at treatment, even homoeopathic, would be utterly pointless.
This is not the case however, Thermographic monitoring can demonstrate that
environment, life style and above all therapy can achieve much, in a positive as well as a
negative direction. They show that miasmatic taints are a protracted but at the same time also
thankful task for both doctor and patient.
The thermogram of an untreated individual not subject to powerful influences remains
amazingly constant from day to day and week after week. Therapeutic measures will however
be seen to be followed by changes in regulatory capacity—deterioration if the treatment has
failed, and improvement if it has been successful, always parallel to the subjective and objective
condition of the patient.
TABLE 2 Characterizations of the three types of reaction seen in chronic illness
Miasm Psora Sycosis Syphilis Hahnemann
Symptomatology Lymphatic Lithaemic Destructive Dorcsi
Characteristic Frozen' Excessive - Pichinger
Hypo regulation
Rost and
Contact thermograms therefore permit us to assess the patient's reactive potential at any given
stage and consequently the miasmatic taint. They provide this information at a very early stage,
often years before the patient becomes aware of the subjective symptoms and is able to describe
them to us. Thermograms may therefore also influence-drug diagnosis, for it is only too often
that we do not suspect a lively person, presenting with no serious complaint, to be carrying a
syphilitic miasm.
If further proof were needed that homoeopathy is a form of therapy aimed at regulatory
processes, the evidence is there in front of our eyes, from the pen of the recorder.
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Samuel Hahnemann taught all this about 150 years ago. He established the laws without
recourse to laboratory reports, X-rays, ECGs or thermographs. Different lines of thought put
forward in two centuries are brought together here and slow remarkable agreement (Table 2).
They have to agree, they have to confirm each other, for they relate to the same law of nature,
that a cure not merely relieves undesirable symptoms; a cure also restores full regulatory
potential. To achieve this, Hahnemann's homoeopathy is for us the therapy of choice.
© Centre For Excellence In Homeopathy
"The miasms are the cause for all human misfortunes," – Ortega.
The image
The Origin of the Miasms
The Miasm and the human race
The Miasm and the Individual
The Health.
What is the general image of the persons and their miasms and their development
according to Ortega's theory?
The personality: The three miasms, Psoric deficiency, Sycotic surplus and Syphilitic
degeneration. Do these "Types" actually exist? Observations and experience indicate that every
individual person has the distinctive features of all the three miasms "Mixture of miasms" and
that they are present in fixed relationship specific to each individual. They are better indicated by
numbers; No.1 indicated Psora, No.2 and 3 for Sycosis and Syphilis. They are indicated in
accordance with the preponderance of one or the other of the miasms. For example 231 indicate
the prevalence of Sycosis over Syphilis and Psora.
Every person comes into the world with some parts of all the three miasms, "miasmatic
inheritance". It is composed of the entire family anamnesis data and follows throughout life as
the basis for the individual reaction.
The environment modulates this inheritance by interfering with it from the beginning.
Which of the miasms will be excited depends upon its influence.
It is a governing rule that every suppression - the central theme of Hahnemann - promotes the
Sycosis, just as every allopathic treatment, every infection and every operation. The same thing
happens in an agitated, superficial, noisy, shrill atmosphere and they awaken the Sycosis.
If a person lives in a hostile, aggressive, demoralizing environment then the destructive
syphilitic element is provoked. Such a person suits himself easily with this environment in
accordance with his syphilitic inheritance (like 321 or 312). If he has inherited preponderantly
the psoric miasms (like 125 or 132) he would respond to the same milieu first with his inhibition
and anxiety conformable to him.
In the same manner a psoric part of the miasms is turned on in a harmonious, calm
In the course of life everyone passes through the different phases. Similarly, different
aspects of the miasmatic inheritance can rise to the surface. From 312 it can, due to the influence
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of the environment, turn into a 132 and later 231 and so on; "layers of miasms" lie over each
Every phase exhibits the "predominant miasm" appropriate to it which has significance in
the classification and repertorisation. It determines the remedy choice.
According to Ortega by the right therapy "layers of miasm" are removed and of course in
reference to Hering's law in the reverse order of the appearance of the symptoms. It can therefore
occur that a predominantly psoric person may, from the treatment, become unexpectedly violent,
excited, aggressive; which meant that the underlying layer of his biography has more syphilitic
element. In numbers, 132 becomes through therapy, 312; a "so-called rotation of the miasms"
actually experienced in Ortega's clinic.
In the course of the treatment the physician can gain ground down to the inherited
miasms constellation. A truly therapeutic resolution of the ultimate miasm is extremely difficult.
It is therefore said (said to be by a classical American homoeopath: Kent? Hering?) that the
congenital miasmatic taint may be dissolved only in the seventh generation of a family treated
Ortega says that with the introduction of this concept in the form of a "miasmatic layers"
and "miasmatic inheritance" it is possible to draw a prognosis in homoeopathy. Further
researches are being carried out in this regard.
Every person brings into his world his miasmatic burden inherited from his forefathers.
The consequence is that the first cause, the "causa prima" of every illness, is fixed in the internal
of every person. Every one carries this in him. The environment, that is the external factors, only
modulate these internal conditions. Ortega refers to this: "People generally look for causes for
their misfortunes in the environment. Diseases have been experienced as due to something
exogenous, from outside. But it is fixed in each one of us, our inner is sick"
The origin of the Miasms: Ortega expresses his ideas about the origin of the miasms in
the clearest terms in his doctoral work "Nature and Homoeopathy". He considers its contents as
relevant even today.
In the beginning the "primitive man" lived as "King of creations" in harmony with Nature
and its Laws Just as now the plants do. One of those days began his selfishness and therewith the
infringement of this natural order and the loss of the balance. It began with the abuse of food,
eating as an end in itself. Ortega links it to Psora whereby the skin manifestations relating to it is
seen as an attempt to throw out the surplus. Then follows the sexual excesses, in accord with
Sycosis and Syphilis.
The infringement began in the Thought and Will of the man. Firstly, in course of time, it
depressed the working of the total organism; and only when the miasm penetrates through the
whole man "We perceive the idiosyncrasy of the miasms". Kent called this infringement as
original sin.
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The Miasms and the Mankind: The removal from the original natural state increased
continually, particularly flagrantly in the era of civilisation. "In what paradise live men!" laments
Ortega about this damage and only perceives that humanity has since then sunk. "Since centuries
man is a criminal and thinks like a criminal while he mishandles the natural law. Self being sick
internally, making all his external situations also sick: the art, the culture, the "spirit of the age".
All these are the play of the internal disorder of the man and mankind affected by the miasms.
Almost all human efforts to know, understand, remained unsuccessful. The sick society
produced its sick thinkers, politicians, doctors and so on. True knowledge is denied to the men
by nature.
If we look unbiasedly at a group of persons we notice innumerable signs of disharmony:
one limps, another deformed, the third has dissimilar ears, another winks, or stammers -almost
every one indicates a deviation of harmony from ideal condition. The miasm is everywhere. It
imprints its stamp on the society and history. All submit to it. It is collective, specific to the
Most will see the ephemeral separate individual. The welfare of the whole humanity is
important. The individual is sacrificed according to the law of preservation, when the miasm in
him gains the upper hand. In this view the infections are strictly rejected and through the acute
disease a true "natural selection" is maintained.
The Miasm and the Individual: In the Dissertation cited of Ortega the individual, personal
dimension of miasms are not the point. They come up later. In accordance with C.G.Jung he
conveys in a lecture, "Personality and Individuality" 1980, new thought: Every person possesses
the crux of true being, his individuality. The form of expression by which this internal being
responds to the circumstance at a given moment is considered as personality. Mostly a large
cleavage exists between this true being and the expression which is found in the here and now,
which presented as mask of its environment. Those which hinder the free natural expression of
man, what estranges him, distort, that is the locus where the miasm dwells.
The core of the Individual, the Spirit, lies outside the scope of the miasm. In the chapter
on Psora this is explained: "What refers to the Spirit, inhibition can neither diminish the
individual, nor weaken the Will nor injure the Understanding but it can determine, arrest, anchor,
Is the individual totally at the mercy of his miasm? A brief opportunity allows Ortega to
explain the conscious "I" of the individual: If his I, his nature or his indestructible individuality
are in a position to overcome miasmatic state, its weakness, he develops himself amazingly
far,................. naturally within the scope of........ his personal capabilities."
Here is a new view of the miasms in consideration of the individual. He has a definite
place in the total theory.
The Health: "Health is an indescribable and instinctive state of well-being. It should be
interpreted correctly through the void, through emptiness". For Ortega health belongs to this past
state of the primitive man. Contemporary man cannot anymore live according to the natural law.
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He has already moved so far away that the power of nature as well as the vital energy and also
the natural way of cure are not anymore capable of curing him. Homoeopathy is the only
efficacious counter-force which with the help of potentisation of its medicine has the power to
approach nearer to the creator and therefore is efficacious. And then a complete cure, a complete
termination of the miasms which is almost unattainable (over seven generations as explained
Health and Sickness are two states of men. Similarly vital energy and miasms are the two
antitheses. "One could see therein a dualistic principle", Ortega adds in a conversation in this
[From title KLASSISCHE HOMOOPATHIC, No. 1/1983; translated from the German and
abridged by Dr.K.S.Srinivasan, Madras, for private communication only.]
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Hahnemann in his later work "Chronic Disease", tried to lay the basis for all the manifold
individual diseases particularly the chronic, under three miasms: Psora, Sycosis and Syphilis. It
discusses the nature of these three diseases the "primary disease", the "three paths of disease",
(Ortega). Hahnemann's predications are the first sketches. It was for the posterity to carry on
with those sketches, work upon them so that the miasms theory could be properly related to
practical homoeopathy.
For quite long time, Hahnemann's miasms theory remained forgotten in actual practice.
It has now again found itself as the innermost enigmatic nucleus. In this movement the Latin
America, particularly Ortega in Mexico has had the most important role. Ortega more than
anyone characterised the three miasms in clearly and easily understandable manner in the spirit
and teaching of the "vital force" in the Organon, so that this could be used in the daily practice.
Ortega distinguished Psora as Deficiency ("el defecto"), Sycosis as Excess ("el exceso")
and Syphilis as Degeneration ("le perversion"). This is the main idea of the Mexican miasms
theory. Ortega said: "It is evident from our observance of Nature. For example, see this cat
here", he points to the cat slumbering by his side on the couch, “If it is threatened, if it is
touched, it has three basic possible reactions which can enhance into pathology. Either it is
startled, overcomes it and lies in its place and does not attempt to defend itself; it corresponds to
deficiency, the inhibition of Psora. Or it hurriedly takes to its heels, which is analogous to
excess, the "flight to the fore" in which we find Sycosis. Or without any consideration of loss,
without appraising the situation of its own or its opponents ability, kills or itself goes down: the
degeneration, the aggression, the destructive as the element of Syphilis........ "I have found the
same principle in the cellular pathology. To me it was the confirmation."
In all levels these three basic forms of pathological reaction, the deviation of the healthy,
can be found as the basic themes of "miasms" facing the healthy, that is an appropriate coping
with an obstruction, a disturbance, a threat in accordance to a given situation.
1. The personal, individual, existential planes:
The response of an individual to a threat will be basically exactly just as the individual’s
behavior to a particular acute situation like inhibition, flight or aggression and destruction: in his
existential dimension. The three miasms represent difficulties in coping with life.
The 'Psoric' is defined by his inhibition, his deficiency which he himself is aware of and
suffers from: deficiency of self-confidence, deficiency of energy and capability, deficiency in
drive for success. He suffers from his weakness and is dominated by his over-all anxiety of life:
anxiety about his life, to cope with his job, anxiety particularly for anything new, of being
laughed at, of being handicapped, of being passed over and lastly fear of the fear, anxiety that
others would observe his fear. He is incapable of asserting himself. Despite his abundant inner
sentimental, passionate spirit he is insignificant in society. He is disposed to be meditative; he
has an inner relationship with nature, with everything beautiful and great. In those circumstances
he can feel himself sheltered, exactly as while with benevolent friends. He needs protection,
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support, love. He is a romantic and a deeply religious person with a consciousness of the
Almighty, a loving God and Creator.
The "Sycotic" is in a perpetual exaggerated "flight to the fore" with which he overplays
his inner weakness and emptiness. He is egoist for no cause, thoroughly superficial and always
tries to draw attention from, recognition by, others, which nourishes his sense of self-value. He
elbows his way forward at the cost of others. He dominates the scene with his restlessness, his
urge for importance and his bragging. If his speculative, dirty tricks are perceived he then jumps
to falsehood or tries to rescue himself by digression or he absconds through the rear door.
Because he is a coward. His life goal 'is valued only by the present time.
The "Syphilitic" breaks all norms, all forms, and all conformity in inter-human
relationship. He cannot and will not adapt himself, is always an odd character, anarchist. He does
not feel himself as responsible to anything. Honor, pride, life in society as well as with his own
are all same to him. Basically he despises the world, life, his own self. He understands no
limitations, consumes himself and others with his passion. He spreads aggression and destruction
and is ready for every crime: a cold-blooded nihilist.
The personalities are so clear before the homoeopathic eyes and the principles of
inhibition-flight-aggression can be applied widely in practice! It was a theme of a pantomime
play in the Liga Congress in Acapulco in 1980 in which the students of Ortega took part, Mr. &
Mrs. "Psora" in blue dress, the pair "Sycosis" in yellow and the two "Syphilitics" in red, and
played their particular rolls.
In the three basic colours Ortega found the correspondence to the three principles. Blue -
Yellow - Red have been so described that the researches in colour psychology is found better
In Ortega's circle the discussion of the miasms is so intensive that it has found its place in
the daily practice. We hear such comments as: "With my Psora I do not have confidence in
that." Or he mobilises his Syphilis and bangs," Or: "What a Sycotic atmosphere!" when it is loud
and shrill. A newcomer will be soon asked "What is your miasm? I think......."
2. The Cellular plane: Every cell reacts to a disturbance first with an inhibition of its functions
which then flows into an Over function in its attempt as compensation mechanism. When these
compensatory mechanisms are overburdened, the destructive phase begins with its degeneration
and cell death: Under function, Over-function, degeneration as trios in cellular range.
3. The pathophysiological range: The psora corresponds to deficiency: under function,
hypotone, hypotrophy,' hyposecretion. The Sycosis is indicated by its surplus: Over function,
hypertone, hypertrophy, hypersecretion, metabolic diseases, inflammations and tumours. The
Syphilis is degeneration classified as: defective function, spasms, atony, atrophy, destruction,
haemorrhage, ulcers.
4. The physical symptoms: The psoric deficiency expresses itself in every "too little":of appetite,
the intestinal function, sweat glands function (dry skin) and is diametrically opposite of surplus
of the Sycotic "too much". The abnormal indicates the Syphilis: "Despite good appetite, satiety
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after few mouthful", diarrhoea or obstipation with spasms or intestinal bleeding, rhagades as a
result of dry skin or stinking excoriating perspiration.
Psoric pains are dull, diffuse, pressing, unclear; the sycotic suffers from wandering,
changing, intolerable pains of appealing character and lively embellishments. The syphilis
causes spasmodic, constant, boring, irritating, hectic, inescapable pains.
5. The modalities:
The three modalities correspond successively: aggravation mornings-evenings-nights;
agg. from cold - change of weather, temperature changes - from heat; movement aggravates the
tired sleepy Psoric, while it ameliorates the fluctuating, restless Sycotic and he always tries to
take rest. The Syphilitic presents paradoxical symptoms like: "must keep on moving despite
perpetual weakness," "must move although it is painful" or complete collapse of a function as a
6. The Aetiology: The factors which cause disease and the time also indicate the miasms.
Infection, suppressive allopathic treatments, also operations promote sycosis even as mental
over-excitement or business competitions. An aggressive, heartless, cold negative atmosphere
provides the Syphilitic elements while in a calm, harmonic atmosphere the Psoric constituent
comes forth.
Deficiency - Excess - Degeneration: so fascinatingly simple and elementary this