A GUIDE TO NORMAL PHYSICAL AND MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
(of Infant & Children)
Material: Rattle, Bell with handle, coloured 1” cubes, crayons and blank paper, small pellet, empty box, ball.
Age Posture and locomo- Response to Language and social
tion of the normal child materials behaviour
Lies supine: head turned to side; hands fisted
1. Bring rattle into line of vision– regards it, and then eyes move from side to side pursuing the object – head returns to side position.
2. Make fingers fist rattle – remains clenched and has to be pried open to relieve rattle. He drops it.
3. Ring bell a few inches from ear. Heeds – cessation or lessening of activity
Responds to snugness when held. Reacts negatively to discomfort.
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Smile of recognition
Supine: Symmetrical posturing. Head midline, steady, freely rotates – fingers nimble hand not fisted.
1. Regards rattle in midline. Follows it from side to side. Place it in his hands, accepts it, regards it, brings it to mouth, approaches it with free hand.
2. Ring bell a few inches from ear; attends with abated activity – may blink, frown or smile. Put on table held prone-fingers on table surface, regards hands and table top.
3. Present a single cube or small stone. Regards it. Look shifts from hand to cube to hand.
Increasing discrimination in perception. “recognizes” mother. Coos and gurgles.
Can sit with support with trunk erect and head steady; when supine lifts his head as if straining to sit up.
1. Present bell, makes an immediate one handed approach – takes it by the bowl or junction, bangs it, transfers – bell to mouth without dropping. Present rattle. Takes it in one hand, regards it, fingers it with free hand.
2. Test auditory responses by ringing a bell opposite one ear and then the other (turns head correctly and promptly)
3. Present 2 or 3 cubes massed; approaches with both hands grasping one cube, holding it, he grasps another, holds one in each hand more than momentarily.
Seated before a mirror, regards image, smiles, vocalizes, pats glass. Discriminates strangers.
1. Drop a cube into empty box or cup within baby’s reach, he fingers the cube in the cup.
2. Place a pellet within reach. Baby approaches pellet with index finger, handles it.
3. Present bell, explores it, grasps by handle, waves bell.
Dimly aware of twoness, wants more than one toy to play with. Varied vocalization “mamma, papa, gaga”. More responsive to demonstrations, imitates actions like bye-bye.
Sits erect and unsupported, likely to pivot in the sitting position.
Examines demonstrations of building a tower with 2 cubes – child manipulates cubes, “attempts” a tower. Drop a cube into cup box; Child removes cube and drops it into the box. Ball is offered to the child; he accepts, on request extends ball to examiner without release. If the ball is rolled towards the child he may cast it imitatively.
About 2 words beside “mamma”, “dada”, responds to name, to “no” and to “give it to me”. Likes playing with several objects. Picks them up, drops them again and again. Beginning to like an audience. Repeats performances laughed at.
Present pellet and box-cup or bottle – child is able to put the pellet inside it. Can build a tower of two. Releases ball on request. Imitates a stroke of crayon on paper.
Increasingly demanding. Tremendous activity. Expects and gives affection, offers cheek to be kissed.
Walks alone. Goes up and down stairs with oen hand held. Climbs into small chair.
Examiner turns the pages of a picture book and comments on the pictures. Child looks at the pictures turns pages 2/3 at a time. If cubes are presented child builds a tower of ¾ blocks. A piece of blank paper is placed on table with crayon on it. Child scribbles spontaneously. On demonstrating a vertical stroke, child makes an imitative stroke without discrimination of direction. Names some pictures correctly.
Language includes jargon and as many as 10 single words. Comprehends directions like “give it to me”, “put it on the table.”
Walks up and down stairs alone, jumps from low objects
If given a picture book he turns the pages singly and names a few pictures. Place a piece of blank paper and crayon on the table. Scribbles spontaneously. Imitates: (a) vertical stroke and (b) a circular stroke. He is shown a pencil, shoe, ball – names at least 2 of them: comprehends more directions.
Jargon has been replaced by simple 3-word sentences. Uses pronouns like I, me, you. Soliloquizes. Asks for food, toilet, drink. Also asks another object – one for each hand. Plays with doll-domestic mimicry. Parallel play with other children.
Walks on tip-toe after demonstration
Present paper and crayon. Holds crayon with fingers, imitates vertical and horizontal strokes. Demonstrate drawing a cross. Child imitates. Copies circle from a picture of drawing.
Verbalizes immediate experiences. Refers to self by pronoun. Gives full name. can help put things away.
Runs well. Walks upstairs alternating on feet on consecutive threads. Jumps on both feet. Rides a tricycle steering and raising the pedals.
With three cubes, examiner demonstrates with comment the construction of a bridge. Model is left standing. Child is given 3 cubes, he imitates the bridge accurately. Given a paper and crayon he scrawls but in response to a question, names what he has drawn.
Can tell sex in response to “are you a little boy or a little girl.” Speaks in well-informed little sentences using plurals. Refers to himself by pronoun. Domesticates, washes, dries hands, feeds himself without much spilling. Can unbutton accessible buttons.
Balances on one foot briefly
Plays with other children co-operatively.
Repeats three numbers. Understands preposition.
Skips with one foot. Throws ball well overhead.
Draws a “man” with two points.
Understands preposition like under, behind, beside.
Can throw accurately.
Knows four colours. Descriptive comments on pictures (use Sanford items).
Dresses and undresses without assistance. Knows a.m. and p.m. left and right.
Moves freely in the community can use the telephone, cycle, etc.
Can compare and mention differences between given objects.
Can count six digits forwards. Repeats days of week. Differences in attitude towards sex. Can describe abstract things.